## How Do I Define New Operators in TenPy

How do I use this algorithm? What does that parameter do?
dm_Physics
Posts: 7
Joined: 05 Dec 2021, 20:23

### How Do I Define New Operators in TenPy

I am currently studying the Bose Hubbard model that has been implemented in TenPy. Here the specific part of the code that I am studying:

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def init_terms(self, model_params):
# 0) Read and set parameters.
t = get_parameter(model_params, 't', 1., self.name, True)
U = get_parameter(model_params, 'U', 0., self.name, True)
V = get_parameter(model_params, 'V', 0., self.name, True)
mu = get_parameter(model_params, 'mu', 0, self.name, True)
for u in range(len(self.lat.unit_cell)):
self.add_onsite(-mu - U / 2., u, 'N')
for u1, u2, dx in self.lat.pairs['nearest_neighbors']:
self.add_coupling(-t, u1, 'Bd', u2, 'B', dx)
self.add_coupling(-np.conj(t), u2, 'Bd', u1, 'B', -dx)  # h.c.
self.add_coupling(V, u1, 'N', u2, 'N', dx)

For instance the code

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 self.add_coupling(-t, u1, 'Bd', u2, 'B', dx)
basically implements the term $$-t\sum_{\langle i, j \rangle}b^\dagger_i b_j$$. Now suppose I want to implement the term $$-t\sum_{\langle i, j \rangle}k^\dagger_i k_j$$ where $$k_i^\dagger = b_i^\dagger \sigma_i^-$$. I want to replace the line

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self.add_coupling(-t, u1, 'Bd', u2, 'B', dx)
with

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self.add_coupling(-t, u1, 'Kd', u2, 'K', dx)
.

Question: Is there a way to implement the operator $$k_i^\dagger = b_i^\dagger \sigma_i^-$$ such that TenPy understand the string "Kd"? I was initially thinking to use

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kron("Bd", "Sp")
, but that would not return a string. How do I incorporate this operator.
Jirawat S
Posts: 4
Joined: 01 Mar 2022, 14:12

### Re: How Do I Define New Operators in TenPy

Hi!
If you know matrix representation (op) of the desired operator, I think you can manually add it through your Site with add_op() function. for example if your Site is BosonSite then you can use

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BosonSite.add_op(name, op)
.
dm_Physics
Posts: 7
Joined: 05 Dec 2021, 20:23

### Re: How Do I Define New Operators in TenPy

Hello Jirawat,

Thank you very much for your response. In the example I gave on $$k_i^\dagger = b_i^\dagger \sigma_i^-$$ would I just write

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BosonSite.add_op('Kd', kron("Bd", "Sp"))
?

Jirawat S
Posts: 4
Joined: 01 Mar 2022, 14:12

### Re: How Do I Define New Operators in TenPy

Since I never work with BH model so I don't know if the way you define the new operator using kron() is really what you want or not.

But this is how I did when I define MPO to work with SpinSite, but it should work as well for other Site. Let say, for whatever reason, I want to use the operator S_0m defined as

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S_0m = np.array([ [0., 0.5, 0.], [0.5, 0., 0.], [0., 0., 0. ] ])

The operator is added after defining Site

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self.spin = SpinSite(S=self.S, conserve="None")
self.lattice = Chain(self.L, self.spin, bc="open", bc_MPS="finite")

After this I am free to add a term into Hamiltonian with S_0m.

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CouplingModel.__init__(self, self.lattice)
MPOModel.__init__(self, self.lattice, self.calc_H_MPO())

Note that in this case I have set conserve="None". If you are going to use symmetry then please makes sure that the operator satisfies it.
Johannes
Posts: 316
Joined: 21 Jul 2018, 12:52
Location: UC Berkeley

### Re: How Do I Define New Operators in TenPy

Thanks for the reply Jirawat! Your answer nicely explains how to add an onsite operator (given as a matrix) to a local site.
Expanding on this, let me just mention that for a CouplingMPOModel it should often be enough to overwrite the init_sites method.
A non-trivial example adding an operator P0 projecting onto the local vacuum would look like this:

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class ModifiedBoseHubbard(BoseHubbardModel):
def init_sites(self, model_params):
site = super().init_sites(model_params)

TenPy's BoseHubbardModel considers spin-less bosons on a lattice, i.e. there is no spin operators like $$\sigma_-$$. When you try to replace $$b_i^\dagger \rightarrow k_i^\dagger := b_i^\dagger \sigma_i^-$$, what is the spin operator here? Do you add an extra spin degree of freedom next to each boson site? In that case you need to add a whole extra site, not just an extra operator! Is it a Spin-1/2?